ashfordNicholas A. Ashford is Professor of Technology & Policy and Director of the Technology & Law Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he teaches courses in environmental law, policy, and economics; law, technology, and public policy; and technology, globalization, and sustainable development. Dr. Ashford holds both a PhD in Chemistry and a law degree from the University of Chicago, where he also received graduate education in economics. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Ralph P. Hall is Associate Professor in the School of Public and International Affairs (SPIA) at Virginia Tech, where he is Director of the SPIA Undergraduate Program. Dr. Hall’s research and teaching focus on sustainable development, sustainable transportation, and water supply and sanitation in developing countries. Dr. Hall holds a PhD in Technology, Management, and Policy and two S.M. degrees in Technology and Policy and Civil and Environmental Engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He also holds an MEng in Civil Engineering from the University of Southampton.

Contributing authors


Charles C. Caldart is Lecturer in Law and Policy in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and the Institute for Data Systems and Society at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Director of Litigation and Senior Attorney at the National Environmental Law Center, a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization bringing environmental enforcement actions in federal courts across the country on behalf of state and local citizen groups. He is also the co-author with Nicholas Ashford of the textbooks Environmental Law, Policy, and Economics (2008) and Technology, Law, and the Working Environment (1996). He holds a law degree from the University of Washington and a master’s degree in public health from Harvard University.

ashford RRobert Ashford is Bond, Schoeneck & King Distinguished Professor of Law at Syracuse University, College of Law. He holds a J.D. with honors from Harvard Law School, and a B.A. with majors in physics and English literature, graduating first in his class at the University of South Florida. He was a Woodrow Wilson Fellow at Stanford University. He is an authority in binary economics, inclusive capitalism, socio-economics, and the history of economic thought. His scholarship has been cited by state and federal courts, including the United States Supreme Court.